Playing Video Files on Your TV with minidlna

Playing Video Files on Your TV with minidlna

One of my presents from Christmas a few years back was a Sony smart blu-ray player. It was marketed as something that easily streams files from your computer. That is absolutely true for anyone that runs Windows, just point and click. With Ubuntu, it’s a bit more complicated. Enter minidlna.

Installation

First thing, install minidlna. Open a terminal (Ctrl-Alt-t) and type this in:

sudo apt-get install minidlna

If you’d rather use the package manager, just search for minidlna.

Setup

The configuration file is editable by running this in the terminal:

sudo gedit /etc/minidlna.conf

There are 2 settings to note: media_dir and friendly_name. The names used are pretty explanatory. Here’s an example of what to update:

# Path to the directory you want scanned for media files.
media_dir=/path/to/shared/media

# Name that the DLNA server presents to clients.
friendly_name=fileserver

Save and close the file. On the terminal run this to refresh minidlna:

sudo service minidlna restart

That’s it! minidlna is all setup to server the files and folders in your media_dir.

Facebook Cover Photos

Personalizing your Facebook Cover Photo is easy, once you know how to search for one. Here’s a quick guide to help you find exactly what you want:

  1. Go to Google Image Search
  2. Search for something, for instance: Fringe
  3. On the left, click ‘Exactly…’ under Any Size
  4. Enter a width of 851
  5. Enter a height of 316
  6. Now all the images in your results are the perfect size for your Facebook Cover.
  7. Keep on searching to find something uniquely you!

Now, if there’s a watermark/logo, you can remove it in Gimp or Photoshop. Or you can just pick an image without a mark in it.

Happy Facebook-Stalking! j/k lol

HTML Post #5: Tables & Whitespace

Tables  are one of the fundamentals of html. At one point in time, everyone’s site was built inside a table. It was really easy to do this. Also, whitespace, including spaces, tabs, and new lines, don’t matter much in html, but there are ways to get the whitespace you desire.

Tables

Here’s a 2×2 basic table:

<table border="1">
 <tr>
  <td>Row 1, Cell 1</td>
  <td>Row 1, Cell 2</td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td>Row 2, Cell 1</td>
  <td>Row 2, Cell 2</td>
 </tr>
</table>

Which looks like this:

Row 1, Cell 1Row 1, Cell 2
Row 2, Cell 1Row 2, Cell 2

Note that I put border=”1″. If I put border=”0″, no border would be added, like this:

Row 1, Cell 1Row 1, Cell 2
Row 2, Cell 1Row 2, Cell 2

Spanning

Each cell in the table can span across, down, or both directions. This is very similar to the merge cell function in Excel. There are a few points to keep in mind. When you span several columns, the next cell in the html code will be the next cell on the screen. Likewise, when you span several rows, you have to skip that cell on the following row(s). Here’s an example:

<table border="1">
 <tr>
  <td rowspan="2">I span 2 rows.</td>
  <td colspan="2">I span 2 columns across.</td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td>I am a single cell.</td>
  <td>I am a single cell.</td>
 </tr>
</table>
I span 2 rows.I span 2 columns across.
I am a single cell.I am a single cell.

Whitespace

Did you notice that the table in the last example could use some text alignment? Maybe vertically align the rowspan cell to the top? Maybe center the colspan cell? How about making the rowspan cell into two lines? Let’s take a look.

Here’s how to vertically align to the top:

<table border="1">
 <tr>
  <td rowspan="2" style="vertical-align: top">I span 2 rows.</td>
  <td colspan="2">I span 2 columns across.</td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td>I am a single cell.</td>
  <td>I am a single cell.</td>
 </tr>
</table>
I span 2 rows.I span 2 columns across.
I am a single cell.I am a single cell.

You could also set vertical-align: bottom for the bottom or middle for the middle.

Centering the colspan cell:

<table border="1">
 <tr>
  <td rowspan="2">I span 2 rows.</td>
  <td colspan="2" style="text-align: center">I span 2 columns across.</td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td>I am a single cell.</td>
  <td>I am a single cell.</td>
 </tr>
</table>
I span 2 rows.I span 2 columns across.
I am a single cell.I am a single cell.

Other possibilities are “left”, “right”, and “justify”.

And finally, inserting a line break:

<table border="1">
 <tr>
  <td rowspan="2">I span<br />2 rows.</td>
  <td colspan="2">I span 2 columns across.</td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td>I am a single cell.</td>
  <td>I am a single cell.</td>
 </tr>
</table>
I span
2 rows.
I span 2 columns across.
I am a single cell.I am a single cell.

HTML Post #4: Divs & Classes

Div Tags

A div tag is very similar to a paragraph tag. The difference from a rendering perspective is that paragraphs have a padding at the top and bottom by default. You can use div tags just like p tags.

Float Style

A div, and other tags, can have a float style. This can float the element on the left or the right. Here’s an example:

<div style="float: right">This floats on the right</div>
<div style="float: left">This floats on the left</div>
<div style="clear: both">This displays under the floats</div>
This floats on the right
This floats on the left
This displays under the floats

Yes, “clear: both” will clear all the floats above it. You can do “clear:left” to place is below the lowest left floating element. Float styles can be used with images as well.

CSS Classes

Styles can be declared once and referred using the class attribute. These styles can be declared using a stylesheet file or a style element. A stylesheet is better because it can be used by multiple pages by adding one line inside the html header:

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="http://example.com/main.css" />

If you want to just play a little bit, you can put a style section in the html header:

<style type="text/css">
/* This is a style comment. */
/*

Put your stylesheet here in the html header!

*/
</style>

You can take this:

<div style="float: left; color: red;">Red Left</div>
<div style="float: left; color: red;">Red Left</div>
<div style="float: left; color: red;">Red Left</div>
<div style="float: left; color: red;">Red Left</div>

And turn it into this:

<style type="text/css">
.left-red { float: left; color: red; }
</style>
...
<div class="left-red">Red Left</div>
<div class="left-red">Red Left</div>
<div class="left-red">Red Left</div>
<div class="left-red">Red Left</div>

Note that the class in the style starts with a period and in the div doesn’t. This is because you are telling the browser that left-red is a class. If it started with a letter, the browser would think it was an element, like a “div” tag. Also, curly braces surround what would be in the style attribute.

Now, go play around for 30 minutes with some html. If you have a question, feel free to ask.

HTML Post #3: Images

Image Tag

<img src="http://example.com/image.jpg" alt="Example Image" />

That will give you just an image, plain and simple. The alt tag is important for people who have images disabled and for search engines. Here’s how to center or left align an image:

<img src="http://example.com/image.jpg" alt="Centered Image" align="center" />
<img src="http://example.com/image.jpg" alt="Left Aligned Image" align="left" />

When using an image inside a link, there will be an automatic blue broder. To remove this:

<a href="http://example.com/">
<img src="http://example.com/images.jpg" alt="Link Image" border="0" />
</a>

Background Images

We’ve all seen images used as backgrounds. It’s fairly simple. To put a background image for the whole page, change the opening body tag to this:

<body style="background: url('image.jpg');">

You can change the repeat by adding the repeat-y keyword like this:

<body style="background: url('image.jpg') repeat-y;">

The image will fill the page top to bottom, but not left to right. There are plenty of options for you background image. Here are the repeats:

  • repeat — tiled to fill completely (default)
  • repeat-y — repeats top to bottom
  • repeat-x — repeats left to right
  • no-repeat — does not repeat

You can also make it scroll with the page or fixed to the screen and does not scroll. Scroll is the default.

You can also set the background of a p, or paragraph, tag the same way.

<p style="background: url('image2.jpg');">I've got a background image!</p>

The full image will not show if there is not enough text.

Colors

You can set the background color, similarly to using an image:

<p style="background-color: red;">I've got a background color!</p>
<p style="background-color: red; color: yellow;">I've got a foreground color!</p>

In the second example, the text will be yellow on red, while the first is black on red.

HTML Post #2: Lists & Links

Lists

There are two basic types of lists in HTML: ordered and unordered. Unordered lists are bullet lists. Ordered lists are numbered. Each item in the list is housed in between opening and closing “li” tags.

Ordered Lists

A simple numbered list is surrounded by opening and closing “ol” tags. Here is a quick example:

<ol>
<li>Step 1.</li>
<li>Step 2.</li>
</ol>

This looks like:

  1. Step 1.
  2. Step 2.

You can use a different marker, just as lowercase letters, uppercase letters, and roman numerals.  This is done by styling the list. Here’s how to do roman numerals:

<ol style="list-style-type: upper-roman">
<li>Step I.</li>
<li>Step II.</li>
</ol>
  1. Step I.
  2. Step II.

Here are the different ordered list style types:

upper-letterUppercase Letters
lower-letterLowercase Letters
upper-romanUppercase Roman Numerals
lower-romanLowercase Roman Numerals
upper-greekUppercase Greek Letters
lower-greekLowercase Greek Letters
decimalRegular Numbers
decimal-leading-zeroLeading Zero

Unordered Lists

These are almost identical to ordered lists. Instead of “ol”, you use “ul”. The default list style type is a bullet. Here are the unordered types:

  • none
  • circle
  • disc
  • square

Here’s that unordered list in HTML:

<ul>
<li>none</li>
<li>circle</li>
<li>disc</li>
<li>square</li>
</ul>

Links

A link is super easy to do.  It’s an “a” tag.  The tag has an “href” attribute that contains the url, just like the “style” attribute contained the styling information. Here’s a quick example:

<a href="http://example.com/">Example.com</a>

Which would like like:

Example.com

You can also tell the browser to open the link in a new window/tab by using the “target” attribute:

<a href="http://example.com/" target="_blank">Example.com in a new window/tab</a>

Example.com in a new window/tab

You can even style the “a” tag to set the color and  remove the underline:

<a href="http://example.com/some_web_page.html" style="color: black; text-decoration: none">Example.com</a>

Example.com

Yes, you can set the color of any text with that style attribute. Also note that multiple styles are separated by a semicolon, and it does not matter the order of the styling when put in the “style” attribute, so long as there’s nothing conflicting.

Well, that’s pretty much it for lists & links. The next post is all about images, so check back!

HTML Post #1

More and more people are starting their own websites. Whether it be a blog, an e-commerce site, or a tribute to their pet, learning HTML will help tremendously. Sure, there are those nice little editors, but they cannot do everything. Plus, sometimes you’ll want to tweak that HTML so everything displays properly. In this series, I’ll cover the basics of a webpage, images, tables, lists, styles, and some other topics.

Base Document

I have setup a base HTML document to show the basics that will be covered in this series. You can find it here. It contains a lot of comments which are ignored by the web browser. An HTML comment starts with “<!–” and ends with “–>”, quotes for clarity.

HTML Tags

Tags are special markers that tell the web browser how to display the page. Tags always start with a less than symbol “<” and  end with a greater than symbol “>”. There are three types of tags: opening, closing, and self-closing. Closing tags start with “</”. Self-closing tags end with “/>”. Every opening tag should have a closing tag. An HTML document will display everything between the “<body>” opening tag and “</body>” closing tag.

DOCTYPE

All HTML documents should start with a DOCTYPE tag. This tag tells the browser which version of HTML you are using and determines how it will render the page. There are serveral different doctypes, but for this series, we’ll be using XHTML Strict.

Basic Tags

The basic tags are:

  • html
    This should open immediately after the doctype and close at the very end of the file.
  • head
    This follows the opening html tag. It contains the title, meta data, and links to stylesheet and javascript files.
  • body
    This follows the closing head tag. Its contents will display as the webpage. Update: Javascript should be placed as close to the end of the bottom as possible.
  • title
    This contains the title of the page, it shows in the tab and/or the titlebar of the browser.
  • p
    This is a paragraph. Each paragraph will have a bit of whitespace before and after them.
  • b
    This bolds the text between the opening and closing b tag.

Sample

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<title>This is just a sample</title>
</head>
<body>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p><b>This is a bold paragraph.</b></p>
<p>There is only <b>one</b> word bold in this paragraph.</p>
<p>It is <b>important</b> to close tags in <b>reverse</b> order they were <b>opened.</b></p>
</body>
</html>

MP3 CDs

OK, so you bought a new CD player and looking at the box, you see MP3 CD. What is an MP3 CD, you ask. It’s just a CD with MP3s on it. No, this is not the same as a traditional audio CD. Let’s look at the differences.

Traditional CDMP3 CD
Playtime80 Minutes Max1450 Minutes Max
Bitrate1200 Kbps64-320 Kbps
Number of Tracks99?????
Embedded Track InfoYesYes
Audio FormatWAVMP3
BurnableYesYes
Computer PlayableYesYes

To burn an MP3 CD, just put the mp3s directly on the cd. In windows, you can drag the files directly to the CD drive in my computer. Then right click on the CD drive and select “Burn these files…”.